class Session

Library: Data
Package: DataCore
Header: Poco/Data/Session.h


A Session holds a connection to a Database and creates Statement objects.

Sessions are always created via the SessionFactory:

Session ses(SessionFactory::instance().create(connectorKey, connectionString));

where the first param presents the type of session one wants to create (e.g., for SQLite one would choose "SQLite", for ODBC the key is "ODBC") and the second param is the connection string that the session implementation requires to connect to the database. The format of the connection string is specific to the actual connector.

A simpler form to create the session is to pass the connector key and connection string directly to the Session constructor.

A concrete example to open an SQLite database stored in the file "dummy.db" would be

Session ses("SQLite", "dummy.db");

Via a Session one can create two different types of statements. First, statements that should only be executed once and immediately, and second, statements that should be executed multiple times, using a separate execute() call. The simple one is immediate execution:

ses << "CREATE TABLE Dummy (data INTEGER(10))", now;

The now at the end of the statement is required, otherwise the statement would not be executed.

If one wants to reuse a Statement (and avoid the overhead of repeatedly parsing an SQL statement) one uses an explicit Statement object and its execute() method:

int i = 0;
Statement stmt = (ses << "INSERT INTO Dummy VALUES(:data)", use(i));

for (i = 0; i < 100; ++i)

The above example assigns the variable i to the ":data" placeholder in the SQL query. The query is parsed and compiled exactly once, but executed 100 times. At the end the values 0 to 99 will be present in the Table "DUMMY".

A faster implementaton of the above code will simply create a vector of int and use the vector as parameter to the use clause (you could also use set or multiset instead):

std::vector<int> data;
for (int i = 0; i < 100; ++i)
ses << "INSERT INTO Dummy VALUES(:data)", use(data);

NEVER try to bind to an empty collection. This will give a BindingException at run-time!

Retrieving data from a database works similar, you could use simple data types, vectors, sets or multiset as your targets:

std::set<int> retData;
ses << "SELECT * FROM Dummy", into(retData));

Due to the blocking nature of the above call it is possible to partition the data retrieval into chunks by setting a limit to the maximum number of rows retrieved from the database:

std::set<int> retData;
Statement stmt = (ses << "SELECT * FROM Dummy", into(retData), limit(50));
while (!stmt.done())

The "into" keyword is used to inform the statement where output results should be placed. The limit value ensures that during each run at most 50 rows are retrieved. Assuming Dummy contains 100 rows, retData will contain 50 elements after the first run and 100 after the second run, i.e. the collection is not cleared between consecutive runs. After the second execute stmt.done() will return true.

A prepared Statement will behave exactly the same but a further call to execute() will simply reset the Statement, execute it again and append more data to the result set.

Note that it is possible to append several "bind" or "into" clauses to the statement. Theoretically, one could also have several limit clauses but only the last one that was added will be effective. Also several preconditions must be met concerning binds and intos. Take the following example:

ses << "CREATE TABLE Person (LastName VARCHAR(30), FirstName VARCHAR, Age INTEGER(3))";
std::vector<std::string> nameVec; // [...] add some elements
std::vector<int> ageVec; // [...] add some elements
ses << "INSERT INTO Person (LastName, Age) VALUES(:ln, :age)", use(nameVec), use(ageVec);

The size of all use parameters MUST be the same, otherwise an exception is thrown. Furthermore, the amount of use clauses must match the number of wildcards in the query (to be more precise: each binding has a numberOfColumnsHandled() value which defaults to 1. The sum of all these values must match the wildcard count in the query. However, this is only important if you have written your own TypeHandler specializations. If you plan to map complex object types to tables see the TypeHandler documentation. For now, we simply assume we have written one TypeHandler for Person objects. Instead of having n different vectors, we have one collection:

std::vector<Person> people; // [...] add some elements
ses << "INSERT INTO Person (LastName, FirstName, Age) VALUES(:ln, :fn, :age)", use(people);

which will insert all Person objects from the people vector to the database (and again, you can use set, multiset too, even map and multimap if Person provides an operator() which returns the key for the map). The same works for a SELECT statement with "into" clauses:

std::vector<Person> people;
ses << "SELECT * FROM PERSON", into(people);

Mixing constants or variables with manipulators is allowed provided there are corresponding placeholders for the constants provided in the SQL string, such as in following example:

std::vector<Person> people;
ses << "SELECT * FROM %s", into(people), "PERSON";

Formatting only kicks in if there are values to be injected into the SQL string, otherwise it is skipped. If the formatting will occur and the percent sign is part of the query itself, it can be passed to the query by entering it twice (%%). However, if no formatting is used, one percent sign is sufficient as the string will be passed unaltered. For complete list of supported data types with their respective specifications, see the documentation for format in Foundation.

Member Summary

Member Functions: begin, canTransact, close, commit, connector, createStatementImpl, getConnectionTimeout, getFeature, getLoginTimeout, getProperty, getTransactionIsolation, hasTransactionIsolation, impl, isConnected, isGood, isTransaction, isTransactionIsolation, open, operator <<, operator =, reconnect, rollback, setConnectionTimeout, setFeature, setLoginTimeout, setProperty, setTransactionIsolation, swap, uri



    Poco::AutoPtr < SessionImpl > ptrImpl

Creates the Session.


    const Session & param101

Creates a session by copying another one.


    Session && param102
) noexcept;

Creates a session by moving another one.


    const std::string & connection,
    std::size_t timeout = LOGIN_TIMEOUT_DEFAULT

Creates a new session, using the given connection (must be in "connection:///connectionString" format).


    const std::string & connector,
    const std::string & connectionString,
    std::size_t timeout = LOGIN_TIMEOUT_DEFAULT

Creates a new session, using the given connector (which must have been registered), and connectionString.




Destroys the Session.

Member Functions

begin inline

void begin();

Starts a transaction.

canTransact inline

bool canTransact();

Returns true if session has transaction capabilities.

close inline

void close();

Closes the session.

commit inline

void commit();

Commits and ends a transaction.

connector inline

std::string connector() const;

Returns the connector name for this session.

createStatementImpl inline

SharedPtr < StatementImpl > createStatementImpl();

Creates a StatementImpl.

getConnectionTimeout inline

std::size_t getConnectionTimeout();

Returns the session connection timeout value.

getFeature inline

bool getFeature(
    const std::string & name
) const;

Look up the state of a feature.

Features are a generic extension mechanism for session implementations. and are defined by the underlying SessionImpl instance.

Throws a NotSupportedException if the requested feature is not supported by the underlying implementation.

getLoginTimeout inline

std::size_t getLoginTimeout() const;

Returns the session login timeout value.

getProperty inline

Poco::Any getProperty(
    const std::string & name
) const;

Look up the value of a property.

Properties are a generic extension mechanism for session implementations. and are defined by the underlying SessionImpl instance.

Throws a NotSupportedException if the requested property is not supported by the underlying implementation.

getTransactionIsolation inline

Poco::UInt32 getTransactionIsolation();

Returns the transaction isolation level.

hasTransactionIsolation inline

bool hasTransactionIsolation(
    Poco::UInt32 ti

Returns true iff the transaction isolation level corresponding to the supplied bitmask is supported.

impl inline

SessionImpl * impl();

Returns a pointer to the underlying SessionImpl.

isConnected inline

bool isConnected();

Returns true iff session is connected, false otherwise.

isGood inline

bool isGood();

Returns true iff the session is good and can be used, false otherwise.

isTransaction inline

bool isTransaction();

Returns true iff a transaction is in progress, false otherwise.

isTransactionIsolation inline

bool isTransactionIsolation(
    Poco::UInt32 ti

Returns true iff the transaction isolation level corresponds to the supplied bitmask.

open inline

void open(
    const std::string & connect = ""

Opens the session using the supplied string. Can also be used with default empty string to reconnect a disconnected session. If the connection is not established, a ConnectionFailedException is thrown. Zero timout means indefinite

operator << inline

template < typename T > Statement operator << (
    const T & t

Creates a Statement with the given data as SQLContent

operator =

Session & operator = (
    const Session & param103

Assignment operator.

operator =

Session & operator = (
    Session && param104
) noexcept;

Move assignment.

reconnect inline

void reconnect();

Closes the session and opens it.

rollback inline

void rollback();

Rolls back and ends a transaction.

setConnectionTimeout inline

void setConnectionTimeout(
    std::size_t timeout

Sets the session connection timeout value.

setFeature inline

void setFeature(
    const std::string & name,
    bool state

Set the state of a feature.

Features are a generic extension mechanism for session implementations. and are defined by the underlying SessionImpl instance.

Throws a NotSupportedException if the requested feature is not supported by the underlying implementation.

setLoginTimeout inline

void setLoginTimeout(
    std::size_t timeout

Sets the session login timeout value.

setProperty inline

void setProperty(
    const std::string & name,
    const Poco::Any & value

Set the value of a property.

Properties are a generic extension mechanism for session implementations. and are defined by the underlying SessionImpl instance.

Throws a NotSupportedException if the requested property is not supported by the underlying implementation.

setTransactionIsolation inline

void setTransactionIsolation(

Sets the transaction isolation level.


void swap(
    Session & other

Swaps the session with another one.

uri inline

std::string uri() const;

Returns the URI for this session.

uri static

static std::string uri(
    const std::string & connector,
    const std::string & connectionString

Utility function that teturns the URI formatted from supplied arguments as "connector:///connectionString".



static const std::size_t LOGIN_TIMEOUT_DEFAULT = SessionImpl::LOGIN_TIMEOUT_DEFAULT;


static const Poco::UInt32 TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED = 0x00000002L;


static const Poco::UInt32 TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED = 0x00000001L;


static const Poco::UInt32 TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ = 0x00000004L;


static const Poco::UInt32 TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE = 0x00000008L;